Question: I have twins (boy and girl) in year 8. They have the same family life but very different personalities. They are doing exams, the boy has done little revision but knows the topics and has done well, the girl has spent hours revising and not doing so well. Effort does not breed results. I believe (although not scientific) that they are both equality intelligent. I believe it might be to do with confidence. Is there any research on the effect of confidence on learning? Mark Cavendish a famous cyclist said that he rode better when his confidence was high and people have told him how good he is. Do students work better when they feel they are going to do well? What about middle of the range students how do you improve their confidence? (if relevant). Any research in how to improve confidence in an unconfident person to help learning?